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Old 8th November 2018, 08:33 AM   #440057  /  #1
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Read my posts with the following stupid accent: Evil Duckess
Here we go again!

But changes in diet were slower than changes in microbiome, suggesting factors beyond American food were at play. “We found that diet alone wasn’t enough to explain the rapid Westernization of the microbiome,Knights said — differences in drinking water and antibiotics possibly contributed as well.
The new study supports hypotheses that Western lifestyle influences the microbiome. Industrialization is correlated with a drop-off: Indigenous South American people, for instance, have about twice as many species in their guts, compared with a person in the United States.
“We have known from some small, not well controlled studies that the microbiome does change — and we have known for many years that adopting a Western lifestyle is associated with an increase in disease,” said microbial ecosystem expert Jack Gilbert, director of the University of Chicago’s Microbiome Center, who was not involved with the current study. “This brings those two concepts together.”
Knights and his colleagues examined microbiomes in stool samples from more than 500 women. Two ethnic groups from Asia, the Hmong and Karen people, represent a large portion of immigrants in Minnesota. (Men were not included, because substantially more women from these communities moved to the state.)
Some Hmong and Karen women in this study lived and remained in Thailand. Others were first- and second-generation U.S. immigrants. To get a before and after snapshot, researchers also took microbiome samples from 19 Karen women before their departure and after their arrival. The scientists compared all of these microbiomes with those of 36 European Americans born in the United States.
The dominant species in the gut changed from strains of bacteria called Prevotella to a group of bacteria called Bacteroides. Prevotella bacteria produce enzymes that digest fibrous foods more common in Asia than the United States. In Thailand, the women ate more palm, coconut, a fruit called tamarind and the bulbous part of a plant named konjac.
“The diet analysis is as good as it can be for any populations. Yes, lifestyle factors could influence these trends, but the trends we observe could easily be explained by diet changes,” Gilbert said.
"We know from studies in animals that having the wrong set of microbes can cause obesity,” Knights said. In pioneering work at the Washington University in St. Louis, scientists took germs from obese women and transplanted the microbes into healthy mice. Those mice grew heavier, even when they ate the same food as their lean rodent equivalents.
The authors of the current work, though, do not have evidence the microbial changes directly increased obesity risk in immigrant women. It is possible that a Western lifestyle leads to obesity while the microbiome independently adjusts. Or a sequence of events could occur: A new diet and lifestyle leads to different microbes, and those microbes, as the mouse studies suggest, have a direct effect on obesity. For the time being, no “formal proof” exists to link microbiome alterations to human disease, Elinav said.
Knights suspects these patterns hold for people elsewhere across the world who adopt Western countries or lifestyles as their own. “Because we were able to confirm the same findings in two different ethnic groups, we expect that we would see something similar happening in the other immigrant groups,” he said. But, as always, future research will show whether this prediction rings true.
Read more:
Tiny gut organisms may influence food cravings and what our bodies do with fat
You’re surrounded by a cloud of bacteria as unique as a fingerprint

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borealis (8th November 2018)